Recent studies have suggested a regulatory role for some of the metabolites derived from oxidative stress in breast cancer. In this way, cancer-induced oxidative changes could modify the breast environment and potentially trigger systemic responses that may affect disease prognosis and recurrence. In this study, we investigated the systemic oxidative profile of women with early breast cancer bearing the primary tumor and after tumor withdrawal, and its long-term implications. Plasma samples were collected at diagnosis, and the systemic oxidative profile was determined by evaluating the lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity of plasma (TRAP), malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonylation, and hydroperoxides. Nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were further measured. We also evaluated the impact of the oxidative profiling at diagnosis on disease recurrence in a 5-year follow-up. Enhanced oxidative stress was detected in patients bearing the primary tumors, characterized by high lipid peroxidation, TRAP consumption, high carbonyl content, and elevated VEGF and TNF-α levels. After tumor removal, the systemic oxidative status presented attenuation in lipid peroxidation, MDA, VEGF, and TNF-α. The 5-year recurrence analysis indicated that all patients who recidivated presented high levels of lipid peroxidation measured by chemiluminescence at diagnosis. Our data suggest that the presence of the primary tumor is indicative of the systemic pro-oxidant status of breast cancer and demonstrates a role for lipid peroxidation in disease recurrence, highlighting the need for a metabolic follow-up of patients with cancer at diagnosis before tumor removal.