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Antibody-opsonized bacteria evoke an inflammatory dendritic cell phenotype and polyfunctional Th cells by cross-talk between TLRs and FcRs.

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (2015-01-15)
Jantine E Bakema, Cornelis W Tuk, Sandra J van Vliet, Sven C Bruijns, Joost B Vos, Sophia Letsiou, Christien D Dijkstra, Yvette van Kooyk, Arjan B Brenkman, Marjolein van Egmond
ABSTRACT

During secondary immune responses, Ab-opsonized bacteria are efficiently taken up via FcRs by dendritic cells. We now demonstrate that this process induces cross-talk between FcRs and TLRs, which results in synergistic release of several inflammatory cytokines, as well as altered lipid metabolite profiles. This altered inflammatory profile redirects Th1 polarization toward Th17 cell responses. Interestingly, GM-CSF-producing Th cells were synergistically evoked as well, which suggests the onset of polyfunctional Th17 cells. Synergistic cytokine release was dependent on activation via MyD88 and ITAM signaling pathways through TLRs and FcRs, respectively. Cytokine regulation occurred via transcription-dependent mechanisms for TNF-α and IL-23 and posttranscriptional mechanisms for caspase-1-dependent release of IL-1β. Furthermore, cross-talk between TLRs and FcRs was not restricted to dendritic cells. In conclusion, our results support that bacteria alone initiate fundamentally different immune responses compared with Ab-opsonized bacteria through the combined action of two classes of receptors and, ultimately, may refine new therapies for inflammatory diseases.

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