Patients with Her2-overexpressing (Her2(+)) breast cancers generally have a poorer prognosis due to the high aggressiveness and chemoresistance of the disease. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the gene encoding polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1; siPlk1) has emerged as an efficient therapeutic agent for Her2(+) breast cancers. Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (PEG-PLA)-based nanoparticles for siRNA delivery were previously developed and optimized. In this study, for targeted delivery of siPlk1 to Her2(+) breast cancer, anti-Her2 single-chain variable fragment antibody (ScFv(Her2))-decorated PEG-PLA-based nanoparticles with si Plk1 encapsulation (ScFv(Her2)-NP(si) Plk1) are developed. With the rationally designed conjugation site, ScFv(Her2)-NP(siRNA) can specifically bind to the Her2 antigen overexpressed on the surface of Her2(+) breast cancer cells. Therefore, ScFv(Her2)-NP(si) Plk1 exhibits improved cellular uptake, promoted Plk1 silencing efficiency, and induced enhanced tumor cell apoptosis in Her2(+) breast cancer cells, when compared with nontargeted NP(si) Plk1. More importantly, ScFv(Her2)-NP(siRNA) markedly enhances the accumulation of siRNA in Her2(+) breast tumor tissue, and remarkably improves the efficacy of tumor suppression. Dose-dependent anti-tumor efficacy further demonstrates that ScFvHer2 -decorated PEG-PLA-based nanoparticles with siPlk1 encapsulation can significantly enhance the inhibition of Her2(+) breast tumor growth and reduce the dose of injected siRNA. These results suggest that ScFvHer2 -decorated PEG-PLA-based nanoparticles show great potential for targeted RNA interference therapy of Her2(+) breast tumor.