Malaria is a major health concern and affects over 300million people a year. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for new efficacious anti-malarial drugs. A major challenge in developing new anti-malarial drugs is to design active molecules that have preferable drug-like characteristics. These "drug-like" characteristics include physiochemical properties that affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Compounds with poor ADME profiles will likely fail in vivo due to poor pharmacokinetics and/or other drug delivery related issues. There have been numerous assays developed in order to pre-screen compounds that would likely fail in further development due to poor absorption properties including PAMPA, Caco-2, and MDCK permeability assays. The use of cell-based permeability assays such as Caco-2 and MDCK serve as surrogate indicators of drug absorption and transport, with the two approaches often used interchangeably. We sought to evaluate both approaches in support of anti-malarial drug development. Accordingly, a comparison of both assays was conducted utilizing apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values determined from liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. Both Caco-2 and MDCK permeability assays produced similar Papp results for potential anti-malarial compounds with low and medium permeability. Differences were observed for compounds with high permeability and compounds that were P-gp substrates. Additionally, the utility of MDCK-MDR1 permeability measurements was demonstrated in probing the role of P-glycoprotein transport in Primaquine-Chloroquine drug-drug interactions in comparison with in vivo pharmacokinetic changes. This study provides an in-depth comparison of the Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cell based permeability assays and illustrates the utility of cell-based permeability assays in anti-malarial drug screening/development in regard to understanding transporter mediated changes in drug absorption/distribution.
Research. Development. Production.
We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.