Here we found that dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor AZD-2014 significantly inhibited RCC cell survival and growth, with higher efficiency than conventional mTORC1 inhibitors rapamycin and RAD001. RCC cell apoptosis was also induced by AZD-2014. AZD-2014 disrupted mTORC1/2 assembly and activation, while downregulating HIF-1α/2α and cyclin D1 expressions in RCC cells. Meanwhile, AZD-2014 activated autophagy, detected by p62 degradation, Beclin-1/ATG-5 upregulation and light LC3B-I/-II conversion. Autophagy inhibition by pharmacologic or siRNA-based means increased AZD-2014 activity in vitro, causing substantial RCC cell apoptosis. In vivo, AZD-2014 was more efficient than RAD001 in inhibiting 786-0 xenografts and downregulating HIF-1α/2α or p-AKT (Ser-473). Finally, AZD-2014's activity in vivo was further enhanced by co-administration of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyaldenine. We provide evidence for clinical trials of using AZD-2014 in RCC treatment.
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