Lipocalin 2 modulates the cellular response to amyloid beta.

Cell death and differentiation (2014-05-24)
S D Mesquita, A C Ferreira, A M Falcao, J C Sousa, T G Oliveira, M Correia-Neves, N Sousa, F Marques, J A Palha
ABSTRACT

The production, accumulation and aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are influenced by different modulators. Among these are iron and iron-related proteins, given their ability to modulate the expression of the amyloid precursor protein and to drive Aβ aggregation. Herein, we describe that lipocalin 2 (LCN2), a mammalian acute-phase protein involved in iron homeostasis, is highly produced in response to Aβ1-42 by choroid plexus epithelial cells and astrocytes, but not by microglia or neurons. Although Aβ1-42 stimulation decreases the dehydrogenase activity and survival of wild-type astrocytes, astrocytes lacking the expression of Lcn2 are not affected. This protection results from a lower expression of the proapoptotic gene Bim and a decreased inflammatory response. Altogether, these findings show that Aβ toxicity to astrocytes requires LCN2, which represents a novel mechanism to target when addressing AD.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, for molecular biology, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (AT)
Sigma-Aldrich
DAPI, for nucleic acid staining
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, for molecular biology, DNase, RNase, and protease, none detected, ≥99% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, pH 8.0, ~0.5 M in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ACS reagent, 99.4-100.6%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrocortisone, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium pyruvate, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride solution, 0.9% in water, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride solution, 5 M in H2O, BioReagent, for molecular biology, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, anhydrous, BioUltra, ≥99% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutamine, meets USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, 99.0-101.0%, from non-animal source
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for electrophoresis, ≥99% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride solution, 5 M
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium selenite, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium pyruvate, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99%
SAFC
Sodium chloride solution, 5 M
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutamine, ReagentPlus®, ≥99% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium selenite, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrocortisone, ≥98% (HPLC)
Supelco
Glycerin, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, anhydrous, crystalline, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, 0.02% in DPBS (0.5 mM), sterile-filtered, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, 99.0-100.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Uridine, ≥99%
SAFC
L-Glutamine