• Home
  • Search Results
  • Increased cortisol awakening response was associated with time to recurrence of major depressive disorder.

Increased cortisol awakening response was associated with time to recurrence of major depressive disorder.

Psychoneuroendocrinology (2014-09-03)
Florian Hardeveld, Jan Spijker, Sophie A Vreeburg, Ron De Graaf, Sanne M Hendriks, Carmilla M M Licht, Willem A Nolen, Brenda W J H Penninx, Aartjan T F Beekman

Although HPA-axis activity has been studied extensively in relation to depression, there is no consensus whether HPA-axis parameters predicts major depressive disorder (MDD) recurrence. We investigated whether HPA-axis parameters (cortisol awakening response (CAR), the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and evening cortisol) predict time to recurrence in remitted subjects with a history of MDD and whether childhood trauma and life events interact with HPA-axis parameters in increasing the risk for recurrence. Data were derived from 549 subjects with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD in remission for at least six months preceding the baseline assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Subjects were followed up with two interviews over the course of four years to assess recurrence. DSM-IV based diagnostic interviews were used to assess time to recurrence of MDD. Seven salivary cortisol samples collected at baseline with information on CAR, evening cortisol and the DST. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox regression analysis, adjusted for covariates. A higher CAR was associated with time to recurrence of MDD (HR=1.03, 95%CI 1.003-1.060, p=0.03) whereas evening cortisol and DST were not. No interactions between HPA-axis parameters and stress-related factors were found. Our data support previous studies reporting that subjects with a higher CAR are more vulnerable to recurrence of MDD.

Product Number
Product Description

Hydrocortisone, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Hydrocortisone, ≥98% (HPLC)
Hydrocortisone, γ-irradiated, powder, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Hydrocortisone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Hydrocortisone, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Hydrocortisone, meets USP testing specifications
Hydrocortisone for peak identification, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Hydrocortisone, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Hydrocortisone, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Hydrocortisone, British Pharmacopoeia (BP) Assay Standard

Social Media

LinkedIn icon
Twitter icon
Facebook Icon
Instagram Icon


Research. Development. Production.

We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.

© 2021 Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Reproduction of any materials from the site is strictly forbidden without permission.