To evaluate and compare the physical and chemical properties of four different dental cements under long-term water storage. A glass-ionomer cement (A:Fuji I), a resin reinforced glass-ionomer (B: Fuji Plus), a self-adhesive resin cement (C:G-Cem), and an etch & rinse resin cement (D: Duolink) were taken as samples. According to ISO 4049, water sorption and solubility of four resin cements under different storage times (1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months) were calculated (n = 5), meanwhile their surface Knoop micro hardness values were measured. Surface cracks were detected on sample B and C after 12 months. Sample A was fragmentized after 6 months. Sample B showed significantly lower surface hardness after 12 months than it did after the first 24 hours of water storage (P < 0.05). Sample D showed significantly lower water sorption than other cements did at all exam time point. The highest water sorption values were observed in Sample D after 1 month [(40.8±2.5) µg/mm(3)], in Sample B after 3 months [(551.3±22.5) µg/mm(3)], in Sample C after 12 months [(147.5±8.3) µg/mm(3)]. The highest solubility values were detected in Sample B after 3 months [(105.3±10.5) µg/mm(3)], in Sample C after 12 months [(79.3 ± 6.2) µg/mm(3)], and in Sample D after 12 months [(23.9 ± 6.9) µg/mm(3)]. Among the four types of cements, the etch & rinse resin cement showed the best stability of physical and chemical properties under long-term water storage.