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  • The alphaherpesvirus US3/ORF66 protein kinases direct phosphorylation of the nuclear matrix protein matrin 3.

The alphaherpesvirus US3/ORF66 protein kinases direct phosphorylation of the nuclear matrix protein matrin 3.

Journal of virology (2010-10-22)
Angela Erazo, Michael B Yee, Bruce W Banfield, Paul R Kinchington
ABSTRACT

The protein kinase found in the short region of alphaherpesviruses, termed US3 in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) and ORF66 in varicella-zoster virus (VZV), affects several viral and host cell processes, and its specific targets remain an area of active investigation. Reports suggesting that HSV-1 US3 substrates overlap with those of cellular protein kinase A (PKA) prompted the use of an antibody specific for phosphorylated PKA substrates to identify US3/ORF66 targets. HSV-1, VZV, and PRV induced very different substrate profiles that were US3/ORF66 kinase dependent. The predominant VZV-phosphorylated 125-kDa species was identified as matrin 3, one of the major nuclear matrix proteins. Matrin 3 was also phosphorylated by HSV-1 and PRV in a US3 kinase-dependent manner and by VZV ORF66 kinase at a novel residue (KRRRT150EE). Since VZV-directed T150 phosphorylation was not blocked by PKA inhibitors and was not induced by PKA activation, and since PKA predominantly targeted matrin 3 S188, it was concluded that phosphorylation by VZV was PKA independent. However, purified VZV ORF66 kinase did not phosphorylate matrin 3 in vitro, suggesting that additional cellular factors were required. In VZV-infected cells in the absence of the ORF66 kinase, matrin 3 displayed intranuclear changes, while matrin 3 showed a pronounced cytoplasmic distribution in late-stage cells infected with US3-negative HSV-1 or PRV. This work identifies phosphorylation of the nuclear matrix protein matrin 3 as a new conserved target of this kinase group.