• Home
  • Search Results
  • Antidiarrheal activity of cashew GUM, a complex heteropolysaccharide extracted from exudate of Anacardium occidentale L. in rodents.

Antidiarrheal activity of cashew GUM, a complex heteropolysaccharide extracted from exudate of Anacardium occidentale L. in rodents.

Journal of ethnopharmacology (2015-08-25)
Thiago S L Araújo, Douglas S Costa, Nayara A Sousa, Luan K M Souza, Simone de Araújo, Ana Patrícia Oliveira, Francisca Beatriz M Sousa, Durcilene A Silva, André L R Barbosa, José Roberto S A Leite, Jand Venes R Medeiros
ABSTRACT

Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) is commonly known as the cashew tree. It is native to tropical America and extracts of the leaves, bark, roots, chestnut net and exudate have been traditionally used in northeast Brazil for the treatment of various diseases. The exudate of the cashew tree (cashew gum) has been exploited by locals since ancient times for multiple applications, including the treatment of diarrheal diseases. The primary aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of cashew gum (CG), a complex heteropolysaccharide from the exudate of the cashew tree, using various models. The antidiarrheal activity of cashew gum (CG) against acute diarrhea was investigated using the castor oil-induced diarrhea model. The effects of CG on gastrointestinal transit and castor oil- and PGE2- induced enteropooling were also examined in rodents. In addition, the effect of CG against secretory diarrhea was investigated using a model of fluid secretion in cholera toxin-treated intestinal closed loops in live mice. Cashew gum (30, 60, and 90 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a significant (P<0.05-0.01) antidiarrheal effect in rats with castor oil-induced diarrhea, inhibiting the total amount of stool and diarrheal stools. The 60 mg/kg dose of CG exhibited excellent antidiarrheal activity and significantly reduced the severity of diarrhea (diarrhea scores) in rats. CG (60 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) decreased the volume of castor oil- and PGE2-induced intestinal fluid secretion (enteropooling). In addition, similar to loperamide (standard drug, 5 mg/kg, p.o.), CG treatment reduced the distance traveled by a charcoal meal in the 30-min gastrointestinal transit model by interacting with opioid receptors. In cholera toxin-induced secretory diarrhea, CG (60 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the intestinal fluid secretion and decreased Cl(-) ion loss in the cholera toxin(-)treated isolated loops model of live mice by competitively binding to cholera toxin-GM1 receptors. In conclusion, our results indicate that a complex heteropolysaccharide extracted from the exudate of A. occidentale L. has antidiarrheal activity in acute, inflammatory, and secretory diarrhea models, which could justify its traditional use in the treatment of diarrhea in northeast Brazil. The antidiarrheal activity might be explained by the capacity of CG to inhibit gastrointestinal motility and thereby reduce the accumulation of intestinal fluid and the secretion of water and chloride ions in the lumen of the intestine.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Prostaglandin E2, synthetic, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, ≥98% (TLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Prostaglandin E2, ≥93% (HPLC), synthetic
Sigma-Aldrich
Prostaglandin E2, γ-irradiated, powder, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, ≥98.0% (NT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Loperamide hydrochloride
Sigma-Aldrich
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, tablet, 1 mg substrate per tablet