MilliporeSigma

Sulfur amino acid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

Biochemical pharmacology (2015-06-07)
Hui Chan Kwak, Young-Mi Kim, Soo Jin Oh, Sang Kyum Kim
ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the metabolomics of sulfur amino acids in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Plasma levels of total cysteine, homocysteine and methionine, but not glutathione (GSH) were markedly decreased in ZDF rats. Hepatic methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, betaine, taurine, spermidine and spermine were also decreased. There are no significant difference in hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, GSH, GSH disulfide, hypotaurine and putrescine between control and ZDF rats. Hepatic SAH hydrolase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase were up-regulated while activities of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase and methionine synthase were decreased. The area under the curve (AUC) of methionine and methionine-d4 was not significantly different in control and ZDF rats treated with a mixture of methionine (60mg/kg) and methionine-d4 (20mg/kg). Moreover, the AUC of the increase in plasma total homocysteine was comparable between two groups, although the homocysteine concentration curve was shifted leftward in ZDF rats, suggesting that the plasma total homocysteine after the methionine loading was rapidly increased and normalized in ZDF rats. These results show that the AUC of plasma homocysteine is not responsive to the up-regulation of hepatic BHMT in ZDF rats. The present study suggests that the decrease in hepatic methionine may be responsible for the decreases in its metabolites, such as homocysteine, cysteine, and taurine in liver and consequently decreased plasma homocysteine levels.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phosphate monobasic, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phosphate dibasic, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99.0%, free-flowing, Redi-Dri
Supelco
Methanol solution, NMR reference standard, 4% in methanol-d4 (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 5 mm × 8 in.
Sigma-Aldrich
Methanol solution, NMR reference standard, 4% in methanol-d4 (99.8 atom % D), NMR tube size 3 mm × 8 in.
Supelco
Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride solution, 0.5 M, pH 7.0(aqueous solution; pH was adjusted with ammonium hydroxide)
Supelco
Methanol solution, contains 0.10 % (v/v) formic acid, UHPLC, suitable for mass spectrometry (MS), ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, electronic grade, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, purified grade, ≥98.5%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Taurine, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, anhydrous, crystalline, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Spermine, ≥97%
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Homocysteine, ≥95% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Spermine, suitable for cell culture, BioReagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Betaine hydrochloride, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ACS reagent, 99.4-100.6%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, BioUltra, anhydrous, ≥99% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phosphate monobasic, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phosphate dibasic, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Boric acid, suitable for electrophoresis, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Serine, ReagentPlus®, ≥99% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Serine, from non-animal source, meets EP, USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, 98.5-101.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Boric acid, BioXtra, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Boric acid, tablet, 1 g boric acid per tablet
Sigma-Aldrich
Cystathionine, ≥90% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phosphate monobasic, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, HPLC Plus, ≥99.9%, poly-coated bottles
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hydrogen chloride, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Magnesium chloride, powder, <200 μm