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Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-Coated Near-Infrared (NIR) Layered Double Hydroxide-Indocyanine Green Nanocomposites for Potential Applications in Photodynamic Therapy.

International journal of molecular sciences (2015-09-05)
Pei-Ru Wei, Yaswanth Kuthati, Ranjith Kumar Kankala, Chia-Hung Lee
ABSTRACT

We designed a study for photodynamic therapy (PDT) using chitosan coated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles as the delivery system. A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, indocyanine green (ICG) with photoactive properties was intercalated into amine modified LDH interlayers by ion-exchange. The efficient positively charged polymer (chitosan (CS)) coating was achieved by the cross linkage using surface amine groups modified on the LDH nanoparticle surface with glutaraldehyde as a spacer. The unique hybridization of organic-inorganic nanocomposites rendered more effective and successful photodynamic therapy due to the photosensitizer stabilization in the interlayer of LDH, which prevents the leaching and metabolization of the photosensitizer in the physiological conditions. The results indicated that the polymer coating and the number of polymer coats have a significant impact on the photo-toxicity of the nano-composites. The double layer chitosan coated LDH-NH₂-ICG nanoparticles exhibited enhanced photo therapeutic effect compared with uncoated LDH-NH₂-ICG and single layer chitosan-coated LDH-NH₂-ICG due to the enhanced protection to photosensitizers against photo and thermal degradations. This new class of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites can potentially serve as a platform for future non-invasive cancer diagnosis and therapy.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate, 99.999% trace metals basis
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3-Ethyl-2,4-pentanedione, mixture of tautomers, 98%
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Potassium bromide, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
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Sodium hydroxide solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, 10 M in H2O
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Sodium hydroxide, BioUltra, for luminescence, ≥98.0% (T), pellets
Supelco
Ethanol standards 10% (v/v), 10 % (v/v) in H2O, analytical standard
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Glutaraldehyde solution, Grade I, 70% in H2O, specially purified for use as an electron microscopy fixative or other sophisticated use
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Glutaraldehyde solution, 50% in H2O, suitable for photographic applications
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Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate, BioUltra, ≥99.0% (KT)
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Potassium bromide, BioUltra, ≥99.5% (AT)
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Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥97.5% (HPLC)
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Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide, 98%
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Glutaraldehyde solution, Grade I, 25% in H2O, specially purified for use as an electron microscopy fixative
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Sodium hydroxide solution, 1.0 N, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
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Glutaraldehyde solution, Grade II, 25% in H2O
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Potassium bromide, anhydrous, powder, 99.999% trace metals basis
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Sodium phosphate dibasic solution, BioUltra, 0.5 M in H2O
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Glutaraldehyde solution, Grade I, 50% in H2O, specially purified for use as an electron microscopy fixative or other sophisticated use
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Glutaraldehyde solution, Grade I, 8% in H2O, specially purified for use as an electron microscopy fixative or other sophisticated use
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Sodium hydroxide, ultra dry, powder or crystals, 99.99% trace metals basis
Supelco
Ethanol solution, certified reference material, 2000 μg/mL in methanol
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Potassium bromide, anhydrous, powder, 99.95% trace metals basis
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Glutaraldehyde solution, 50 wt. % in H2O
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