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Modulation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Potency by Endocannabinoid-like Lipids Represents a Novel Mode of Regulating GLP-1 Receptor Signaling.

The Journal of biological chemistry (2015-04-24)
Yu-Hong Cheng, Mei-Shang Ho, Wei-Ting Huang, Ying-Ting Chou, Klim King
ABSTRACT

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are in clinical trials for disorders including neurodegenerative diseases. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in many peripheral and neuronal tissues and is activated by circulating GLP-1. Other than food intake, little is known about factors regulating GLP-1 secretion. Given a normally basal circulating level of GLP-1, knowledge of mechanisms regulating GLP-1R signaling, which has diverse functions in extrapancreatic tissues, remains elusive. In this study, we found that the potency of GLP-1, not exendin 4, is specifically enhanced by the endocannabinoid-like lipids oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and 2-oleoylglycerol but not by stearoylethanolamide (SEA) or palmitoylethanolamide. 9.2 μM OEA enhances the potency of GLP-1 in stimulating cAMP production by 10-fold but does not affect its receptor binding affinity. OEA and 2-oleoylglycerol, but not SEA, bind to GLP-1 in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. OEA but not SEA promoted GLP-1(7-36) amide to trypsin inactivation in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. Susceptibility of GLP-1(7-36) amide to trypsin inactivation is increased 40-fold upon binding to OEA but not to SEA. Our findings indicate that OEA binds to GLP-1(7-36) amide and enhances the potency that may result from a conformational change of the peptide. In conclusion, modulating potency of GLP-1 by physiologically regulated endocannabinoid-like lipids allows GLP-1R signaling to be regulated spatiotemporally at a constant basal GLP-1 level.

MATERIALS
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