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Pleiotropic modes of action in tumor cells of RNASET2, an evolutionary highly conserved extracellular RNase.

Oncotarget (2015-03-24)
Marta Lualdi, Edoardo Pedrini, Katia Rea, Laura Monti, Debora Scaldaferri, Marzia Gariboldi, Annalisa Camporeale, Paolo Ghia, Elena Monti, Antonella Tomassetti, Francesco Acquati, Roberto Taramelli
ABSTRACT

As widely recognized, tumor growth entails a close and complex cross-talk among cancer cells and the surrounding tumor microenvironment. We recently described the human RNASET2 gene as one key player of such microenvironmental cross-talk. Indeed, the protein encoded by this gene is an extracellular RNase which is able to control cancer growth in a non-cell autonomous mode by inducing a sustained recruitment of immune-competent cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage within a growing tumor mass. Here, we asked whether this oncosuppressor gene is sensitive to stress challenges and whether it can trigger cell-intrinsic processes as well. Indeed, RNASET2 expression levels were consistently found to increase following stress induction. Moreover, changes in RNASET2 expression levels turned out to affect several cancer-related parameters in vitro in an ovarian cancer cell line model. Of note, a remarkable rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton organization, together with changes in cell adhesion and motility, emerged as putative mechanisms by which such cell-autonomous role could occur. Altogether, these biological features allow to put forward the hypothesis that the RNASET2 protein can act as a molecular barrier for limiting the damages and tissue remodeling events occurring during the earlier step of cell transformation.

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