Inflammatory caspases, such as caspase-1, which is critical for the innate immune response, are activated upon the formation of a molecular complex called the inflammasome. The inflammasome is composed of three proteins, the Nod-like receptor (NLRP, NLRC or AIM2), apoptosis associated speck-loke protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1. ASC is an adaptor molecule that contains an N-terminal PYD domain and a C-terminal CARD domain for interaction with other proteins. Upon activation, the N-terminal PYD of ASC homotypically interacts with the PYD domain of the Nod-like receptor, while its C-terminal CARD homotypically interacts with the CARD domain of caspase-1. PYD only protein 1 (POP1) negatively regulates inflammatory response by blocking the formation of the inflammasome. POP1 directly binds to ASC via a PYD:PYD interaction, thereby preventing ASC recruitment to Nod-like receptor NLRPs. POP1-mediated regulation of inflammation is of great biological importance. Here, we report the crystal structure of human POP1 and speculate about the inhibitory mechanism of POP1-mediated inflammasome formation based on the current structure.