Several reports indicated that histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a crucial role in inflammation and fibrogenesis. Sodium butyrate (SB) is a short-chain fatty acid having HDAC inhibition potential. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of SB against L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced pancreatic fibrosis in Wistar rats. Pancreatic fibrosis was induced by twice intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 20% L-Arg (250 mg/100 g) at 2-h interval on day 1, 4, 7, and 10, whereas SB (800 mg/kg/day) was administrated for 10 days. At the end of the study, biochemical estimations, histological alterations, DNA damage, and the expression of various proteins were evaluated. Posttreatment of SB decreased L-Arg-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress, DNA damage, histological alterations, and fibrosis. Interestingly, posttreatment of SB significantly decreased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and 3-nitrotyrosine. The present study demonstrated that posttreatment of SB alleviates L-Arg-induced pancreatic damage and fibrosis in rat.
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