Kafirin nanoparticle-stabilized Pickering emulsions (KPEs) were used to encapsulate curcumin. The stability of KPEs under processing conditions and their protective effects against photo-oxidation of curcumin and lipid oxidation of oil in emulsions, as well as the digestion profiles in gastrointestinal tract, were investigated. KPEs were found to be more stable under acidic than basic environment, and elevated temperature induced their structural instability. The protective effect of KPEs on the chemical stability of curcumin was manifested when subjected to UV radiation as compared to other comparable formulations, such as bulk oil or Tween 80 stabilized emulsions (TEs). Meanwhile, the lipid oxidation rate was retarded in KPEs as compared to those of TEs. Due to hydrolysis of pepsin, KPEs could not survive through the gastric digestion process. After the intestinal digestion process, the extent of lipolysis of KPEs and the curcumin bioaccessibility fell between those of TEs and bulk oil. These results will fill the gap between the physicochemical properties of protein particle-based Pickering emulsions and their realistic applications in the oral delivery of functional food ingredients.