The aim of the study is to determine whether low doses of "endocrine disrupting chemicals" (EDCs) affect the development and proliferative activity of the mammary glands (MGs). Adult parous/nulliparous female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated from post-natal day (PND) 1 until PND 180 with diethylphthalate (DEP), methylparaben (MPB), triclosan (TCS) and a mixture at doses comparable to human exposure. The doses (mg/kg b.w./day) were: DEP=0.173; MPB=0.105; TCS=0.05. EDC treatment resulted in mortality rates >20% in pups as early as lactation day 7. Significant morphological/histological changes were observed at the end of lactation in the MGs of EDC-treated dams. The total transcriptome profile as well as lactation-related genes in MGs also corroborate the morphological findings as more profound gene expression changes are present only at the weaning period. The study highlights the heightened sensitivity of the MGs during critical windows of exposure, particularly pregnancy and lactation, with an impact on pups' survival.