Melatonin, the chief secretory product of the pineal gland, regulates dynamic physiological adaptations that occur in seasonally breeding mammals as a response to changes in daylight hours. Because of the presence of melatonin in semen and the mem- brane melatonin receptor in spermatozoa, the impact of melatonin on the regulation of male infertility is still questionable. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of endogenous melatonin on human semen parameters (sperm concentration, motility and normal morphology), DNA fragmentation (DF) and nuclear maturity. In this clinical prospective study, semen samples from 75 infer- tile men were routinely analyzed and assessed for melatonin and total antioxidant capac- ity (TAC) levels using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and colorimetric assay kits, respectively. DF was examined by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test. Acidic aniline blue staining was used to detect chromatin defects in the sperm nuclei. There was no significant correlation between seminal plasma melatonin and TAC with sperm parameters and nuclear maturity. However, we observed a positive significant correlation between DF and melatonin level (r=0.273, P<0.05). Melatonin in seminal plasma is positively correlated with damaged sperm DNA of infertile patients. The mechanism of this phenomenon needs further study.