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Surface Modified Nanocellulose Fibers Yield Conducting Polymer-Based Flexible Supercapacitors with Enhanced Capacitances.

ACS nano (2015-06-18)
Zhaohui Wang, Daniel O Carlsson, Petter Tammela, Kai Hua, Peng Zhang, Leif Nyholm, Maria Strømme
ABSTRACT

We demonstrate that surface modified nanocellulose fibers (NCFs) can be used as substrates to synthesize supercapacitor electrodes with the highest full electrode-normalized gravimetric (127 F g(-1)) and volumetric (122 F cm(-3)) capacitances at high current densities (300 mA cm(-2) ≈ 33 A g(-1)) until date reported for conducting polymer-based electrodes with active mass loadings as high as 9 mg cm(-2). By introducing quaternary amine groups on the surface of NCFs prior to polypyrrole (PPy) polymerization, the macropore volume of the formed PPy-NCF composites can be minimized while maintaining the volume of the micro- and mesopores at the same level as when unmodified or carboxylate groups functionalized NCFs are employed as polymerization substrates. Symmetric, aqueous electrolyte-based, devices comprising these porosity-optimized electrodes exhibit device-specific volumetric energy and power densities of 3.1 mWh cm(-3) and 3 W cm(-3) respectively; which are among the highest values reported for conducting polymer electrodes in aqueous electrolytes. The functionality of the devices is verified by powering a red light-emitting diode with the device in different mechanically challenging states.

MATERIALS
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