MilliporeSigma
  • Home
  • Search Results
  • Cinnamon and Its Metabolite Sodium Benzoate Attenuate the Activation of p21rac and Protect Memory and Learning in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Cinnamon and Its Metabolite Sodium Benzoate Attenuate the Activation of p21rac and Protect Memory and Learning in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

PloS one (2015-06-24)
Khushbu K Modi, Avik Roy, Saurabh Brahmachari, Suresh B Rangasamy, Kalipada Pahan
ABSTRACT

This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) in attenuating oxidative stress and protecting memory and learning in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). NaB, but not sodium formate, was found to inhibit LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mouse microglial cells. Similarly, NaB also inhibited fibrillar amyloid beta (Aβ)- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(+)-induced microglial production of ROS. Although NaB reduced the level of cholesterol in vivo in mice, reversal of the inhibitory effect of NaB on ROS production by mevalonate, and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, but not cholesterol, suggests that depletion of intermediates, but not end products, of the mevalonate pathway is involved in the antioxidant effect of NaB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an inhibitor of p21rac geranylgeranyl protein transferase suppressed the production of ROS and that NaB suppressed the activation of p21rac in microglia. As expected, marked activation of p21rac was observed in the hippocampus of subjects with AD and 5XFAD transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD. However, oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder and NaB suppressed the activation of p21rac and attenuated oxidative stress in the hippocampus of Tg mice as evident by decreased dihydroethidium (DHE) and nitrotyrosine staining, reduced homocysteine level and increased level of reduced glutathione. This was accompanied by suppression of neuronal apoptosis, inhibition of glial activation, and reduction of Aβ burden in the hippocampus and protection of memory and learning in transgenic mice. Therefore, cinnamon powder may be a promising natural supplement in halting or delaying the progression of AD.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile solution, contains 10.0% acetone, 40.0% 2-propanol, 0.05% formic acid
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile solution, contains 0.05 % (w/v) ammonium formate, 0.1 % (v/v) formic acid, 5 % (v/v) water, suitable for HPLC
Sigma-Aldrich
SyntheChol® NS0 Supplement, 500 ×, synthetic cholesterol, animal component-free, sterile-filtered, aqueous solution, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile solution, contains 0.05 % (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile solution, contains 0.1 % (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, suitable for HPLC
Sigma-Aldrich
BIS-TRIS, BioUltra, ≥99.0% (NT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile solution, contains 0.1 % (v/v) formic acid, suitable for HPLC
Sigma-Aldrich
Cholesterol, from sheep wool, ≥92.5% (GC), powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Cholesterol, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
BIS-TRIS, BioPerformance Certified, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
BIS-TRIS, ≥98.0% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
BIS-TRIS, BioXtra, ≥98.0% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Cholesterol, Sigma Grade, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-Tau Mouse mAb (TAU-5), liquid, clone TAU-5, Calbiochem®
SAFC
BIS-TRIS
SAFC
BIS-TRIS
SAFC
Cholesterol, from sheep wool, Controlled origin, meets USP/NF testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium benzoate, BioXtra, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium formate, BioUltra, ≥99.0% (NT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, HPLC Plus, ≥99.9%, poly-coated bottles
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium benzoate, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, ≥99.5%, ACS reagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium formate, 99.998% trace metals basis
SAFC
Cholesterol, Plant-Derived, SyntheChol®, NF, Ph. Eur., JP
Supelco
Acetonitrile, HPLC grade, ≥99.93%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetonitrile, electronic grade, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium benzoate, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, FCC, E211, 99.0-100.5% (calc. to the dried substance), powder