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  • Multilayered Regulation of Ethylene Induction Plays a Positive Role in Arabidopsis Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae.

Multilayered Regulation of Ethylene Induction Plays a Positive Role in Arabidopsis Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae.

Plant physiology (2015-08-13)
Rongxia Guan, Jianbin Su, Xiangzong Meng, Sen Li, Yidong Liu, Juan Xu, Shuqun Zhang
ABSTRACT

Ethylene, a key phytohormone involved in plant-pathogen interaction, plays a positive role in plant resistance against fungal pathogens. However, its function in plant bacterial resistance remains unclear. Here, we report a detailed analysis of ethylene induction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst). Ethylene biosynthesis is highly induced in both pathogen/microbe-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), and the induction is potentiated by salicylic acid (SA) pretreatment. In addition, Pst actively suppresses PAMP-triggered ethylene induction in a type III secretion system-dependent manner. SA potentiation of ethylene induction is dependent mostly on MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE6 (MPK6) and MPK3 and their downstream ACS2 and ACS6, two type I isoforms of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACSs). ACS7, a type III ACS whose expression is enhanced by SA pretreatment, is also involved. Pst expressing the avrRpt2 effector gene (Pst-avrRpt2), which is capable of triggering ETI, induces a higher level of ethylene production, and the elevated portion is dependent on SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 and NONEXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1, two key players in SA biosynthesis and signaling. High-order ACS mutants with reduced ethylene induction are more susceptible to both Pst and Pst-avrRpt2, demonstrating a positive role of ethylene in plant bacterial resistance mediated by both PAMP-triggered immunity and ETI.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylene, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylene, 99.99%
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid, ≥98% (TLC)