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Cyclooxygenase-2 is involved in the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cholangiocarcinoma induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

The American journal of pathology (2009-02-17)
Keita Itatsu, Motoko Sasaki, Junpei Yamaguchi, Shusaku Ohira, Akira Ishikawa, Hiroko Ikeda, Yasunori Sato, Kenichi Harada, Yoh Zen, Hiroshi Sato, Tetsuo Ohta, Masato Nagino, Yuji Nimura, Yasuni Nakanuma
ABSTRACT

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an important enzyme in tumor invasion and metastasis in malignant tumors, including cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine, was recently reported to induce the up-regulation of MMP-9 in cultured CC cells. We examined whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), another endogenous tumor promoter, are involved in the up-regulation of MMP-9 in CC using CC tissue specimens and a CC cell line, HuCCT-1. MMP-9 and COX-2 were immunohistochemically expressed in 58% and 89% of 110 CC cases, respectively; the expression of MMP-9 and COX-2 was correlated (r = 0.32, P = 0.00072). Using zymography, latent MMP-9 was detectable in all cases and active MMP-9 was detected in 24% of cases of the CC specimens. The TNF-alpha/TNF-receptor 1 (TNF-R1) interaction induced MMP-9 production and activation, as well as COX-2 overexpression and PGE2 production, and increased the migration of CC cells. MMP-9 up-regulation was inhibited by COX inhibitors, antagonists of EP2/4 (receptors of PGE2), and COX-1 and COX-2 siRNAs. Inhibitors of both MMP-9 and MMP-9 siRNA treatment abrogated the increase in the migration of CC cells induced by TNF-alpha. In conclusion, we propose a novel signaling pathway of MMP-9 up-regulation in CC cells such that TNF-alpha induces the activation of COX-2 and PGE2 via TNF-R1 followed by the up-regulation of MMP-9 via the PGE2 (EP2/4) receptor.

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