Lithospermi Radix (LR) is an effective traditional Chinese herb in various types of wound healing; however, its mechanism of action remains unknown. A biochemical and proteomic platform was generated to explore the biological phenomena associated with LR and its active component shikonin. We found that both LR ethanol extracts and shikonin are able to promote cell proliferation by up to 25%. The results of proteomic analysis revealed that twenty-two differentially expressed proteins could be identified when fibroblast cells were treated with LR or shikonin. The functions of those proteins are associated with antioxidant activity, antiapoptosis activity, the regulation of cell mobility, the secretion of collagen, the removal of abnormal proteins, and the promotion of cell proliferation, indicating that the efficacy of LR in wound healing may be derived from a synergistic effect on a number of factors induced by the herbal medicine. Furthermore, an animal model confirmed that LR is able to accelerate wound healing on the flank back of the SD rats. Together these findings help to pinpoint the molecular basis of wound healing process induced by LR.