Adenosine may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, since it modulates the release of several neurotransmitters such as glutamate, dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, decreases neuronal activity by pos-synaptic hyperpolarization and inhibits dopaminergic activity. Adenosine deaminase participates in purine metabolism by converting adenosine into inosine. The most frequent functional polymorphism of adenosine deaminase (22G→A) (ADA1*2) exhibits 20-30% lower enzymatic activity in individuals with the G/A genotype than individuals with the G/G genotype. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ADA polymorphism 22G→A (ADA1*2) in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. The genotypes of the ADA 22G→A were identified with allele-specific PCR strategy in 152 schizophrenic patients and 111 healthy individuals. A significant decrease in the frequency of the G/A genotype was seen in schizophrenic patients (7/152 - 4.6%) relative to controls (13/111 - 11.7%, p = 0.032, OR = 2.6). These results suggest that the G/A genotype associated with low adenosine deaminase activity and, supposingly, with higher adenosine levels is less frequent among schizophrenic patients.