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PIF1-Interacting Transcription Factors and Their Binding Sequence Elements Determine the in Vivo Targeting Sites of PIF1.

The Plant cell (2016-06-16)
Junghyun Kim, Hyojin Kang, Jeongmoo Park, Woohyun Kim, Janghyun Yoo, Nayoung Lee, Jaewook Kim, Tae-Young Yoon, Giltsu Choi
ABSTRACT

The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) binds G-box elements in vitro and inhibits light-dependent germination in Arabidopsis thaliana A previous genome-wide analysis of PIF1 targeting indicated that PIF1 binds 748 sites in imbibed seeds, only 59% of which possess G-box elements. This suggests the G-box is not the sole determinant of PIF1 targeting. The targeting of PIF1 to specific sites could be stabilized by PIF1-interacting transcription factors (PTFs) that bind other nearby sequence elements. Here, we report PIF1 targeting sites are enriched with not only G-boxes but also with other hexameric sequence elements we named G-box coupling elements (GCEs). One of these GCEs possesses an ACGT core and serves as a binding site for group A bZIP transcription factors, including ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which inhibits seed germination in abscisic acid signaling. PIF1 interacts with ABI5 and other group A bZIP transcription factors and together they target a subset of PIF1 binding sites in vivo. In vitro single-molecule fluorescence imaging confirms that ABI5 facilitates PIF1 binding to DNA fragments possessing multiple G-boxes or the GCE alone. Thus, we show in vivo PIF1 targeting to specific binding sites is determined by its interaction with PTFs and their binding to GCEs.

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