In mice whose Gi/o-protein function had been impaired by antisense 'knock-down' or pertussis toxin treatment, i.c.v. injection of myr+-Gi/o alpha subunits restored the effectiveness of beta-endorphin, morphine, DPDPE, clonidine and neurotensin to produce antinociception. Myr+-G alpha subunits of the class of G-proteins actually impaired were more effective than unlike but related myr+-G alpha subunits. Selectivity was noted in that only exogenous myr+-G alpha subunits affected (enhanced) the activity of agonists in G alpha-deficient signalling systems. This treatment had little effect on agonist potency when the impairment resided at the receptor level. The potential of the opioids, clonidine and R-PIA to increase G alpha-related in vitro hydrolysis of GTP was also re-established after injecting myr+-Gi2 alpha subunits into Gi2-knocked-down mice. Myr+-Gi2 alpha subunits pre-incubated with GTPgammaS or GDPbetaS before i.c.v. injection did not improve the activity of agonists in vivo (antinociception) or in vitro (regulation of low Km GTPase). After impairing the function of PKCbeta1 by antisense treatment or with the inhibitor H7, the effect of myr+-G alpha subunits on agonist potency was prevented. Electron microscope analysis showed the entry of gold-conjugated myr+-G alpha subunits into neural cells. These particles were found in the cytoplasm, associated with the plasma membranes of different neuronal processes and also in synaptic junctions. In cultured neurons and astrocytes myr+-Gi2 alpha-associated fluorescence was internalised in a dose-dependent manner and distributed in the plasma membrane and cytosol, as well as in nuclei of dividing astrocytes. Thus, G alpha subunits in CSF enter into neurons and functionally couple to the receptor-triggered signalling cascade. As G-proteins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neural disorders, this finding may be valuable in the therapy of such dysfunctions.
Research. Development. Production.
We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.