Mn(2+) was found to induce adhesion of HT29-D4 adenoma carcinoma cells to fibrinogen (Fb). This was independent of the expression of the beta3 integrin subunit and involved endogenous alphavbeta6 but not alphavbeta5 integrin. Thus, addition of Mn(2+) led to a change in integrin alphavbeta6 specificity. Furthermore, Mn(2+) was found to strongly activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) pathway in the HT29-D4 cell line. As a MAPK inhibitor strongly reduced the Mn(2+)-induced cell adhesion to Fb, it is suggested that a link between MAPK activation and cell adhesion to Fb exists. Both expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were enhanced by Mn(2+) and this led to Fb processing. MMP inhibitors prevented Mn(2+)-mediated cell adhesion to Fb, leading us to suggest that Mn(2+) promoted convergent changes in integrin alphavbeta6 conformation and Fb structure through activation of ERK/MAPK and MMP-9. Finally, we found that Mn(2+) and activators of the ERK pathway cooperated in HT29-D4 cell adhesion to Fb. Such a process may be involved in bone metastasis of some cancer cells.
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