Human-PBL-SCID animals were created by intraperitoneal (i.p.) transfer of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) or PBL depleted of CD8-expressing lymphocytes (CD8dL). Analysis of human immunoglobulin levels in these animals revealed that severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice receiving CD8dL produced significantly higher levels of serum human immunoglobulin than those receiving PBL. In an attempt to induce antigen-specific human antibodies these human-PBL-SCID animals were vaccinated with soluble protein antigen [ovalbumin (OVA)] entrapped within liposomes as an immunological adjuvant. Vaccination produced antigen-specific human IgM and IgG in human-PBL-SCID mouse serum. The use of liposomes as adjuvant and the reconstitution of animals with CD8dL together enhanced the OVA-specific immune response as evidenced by the detection of significantly increased serum antibody titres. In the CD8dL reconstituted group, solid tumours of human B-cell origin became detectable in the peritoneal cavity of animals at 8-10 weeks post-reconstitution. These tumours were readily established in vitro and subsequent analysis of culture supernatants showed that these malignant cells continue to secrete human antibodies specific for the original immunizing antigen in vitro. We believe this vaccination of the human-PBL-SCID mouse to produce antigen-specific human antibodies, may find use in the future production of human monoclonal antibodies and in the testing and development of novel vaccine/adjuvant systems.