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The biomechanical properties of an epithelial tissue determine the location of its vasculature.

Nature communications (2016-12-21)
Martin Kragl, Rajib Schubert, Haiko Karsjens, Silke Otter, Barbara Bartosinska, Kay Jeruschke, Jürgen Weiss, Chunguang Chen, David Alsteens, Oliver Kuss, Stephan Speier, Daniel Eberhard, Daniel J Müller, Eckhard Lammert

An important question is how growing tissues establish a blood vessel network. Here we study vascular network formation in pancreatic islets, endocrine tissues derived from pancreatic epithelium. We find that depletion of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in the pancreatic epithelial cells of mice results in glucose intolerance due to a loss of the intra-islet vasculature. In turn, blood vessels accumulate at the islet periphery. Neither alterations in endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, morphology, Vegfa expression and VEGF-A secretion nor 'empty sleeves' of vascular basement membrane are found. Instead, biophysical experiments reveal that the biomechanical properties of pancreatic islet cells, such as their actomyosin-mediated cortex tension and adhesive forces to endothelial cells, are significantly changed. These results suggest that a sorting event is driving the segregation of endothelial and epithelial cells and indicate that the epithelial biomechanical properties determine whether the blood vasculature invades or envelops a growing epithelial tissue.

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