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Mechanistic insight into the procoagulant activity of tumor-derived apoptotic vesicles.

Biochimica et biophysica acta (2016-11-20)
Morad-Rémy Muhsin-Sharafaldine, Bailey R Kennedy, Sarah C Saunderson, Catrin R Buchanan, Amy C Dunn, James M Faed, Alexander D McLellan

Chemotherapy induces the release of apoptotic vesicles (ApoV) from the tumor plasma membrane. Tumor ApoV may enhance the risk of thrombotic events in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. However, the relative contribution of ApoV to coagulation and the pathways involved remain poorly characterized. In addition, this study sets out to compare the procoagulant activity of chemotherapy-induced ApoV with their cell of origin and to determine the mechanisms of ApoV-induced coagulation. We utilized human and murine cancer cell lines and chemotherapeutic agents to determine the requirement for the coagulation factors (tissue factor; TF, FII, FV, FVII, FVIII, FIX and phosphatidylserine) in the procoagulant activity of ApoV. The role of previously identified ApoV-associated FV was determined in a FV functional assay. ApoV were significantly more procoagulant per microgram of protein compared to parental living or dying tumor cells. In the phase to peak fibrin generation, procoagulant activity was dependent on phosphatidylserine, TF expression, FVII and the prothrombinase complex. However, the intrinsic coagulation factors FIX and FVIII were dispensable. ApoV-associated FV could not support coagulation in the absence of supplied, exogenous FV. ApoV are significantly more procoagulant than their parental tumor cells. ApoV require the extrinsic tenase and prothrombinase complex to activate the early phase of coagulation. Endogenous FV identified on tumor ApoV is serum-derived and functional, but is non-essential for ApoV-mediated fibrin generation. This study clarifies the mechanisms of procoagulant activity of vesicles released from dying tumor cells.

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Picropodophyllotoxin, ≥96% (HPLC), powder
Insulin from bovine pancreas, ≥25 USP units/mg (HPLC), powder