Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a cascade of degenerative events including cell death, axonal damage, and the upregulation of inhibitory molecules which prevent regeneration and limit recovery. Repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) is a potent neurite growth inhibitor in the central nervous system, exerting its repulsive activity by binding the Neogenin receptor. Here, we show for the first time that inhibitory RGMa is markedly upregulated in multiple cell types after clinically relevant impact-compression SCI in rats, and importantly, also in the injured human spinal cord. To neutralize inhibitory RGMa, clinically relevant human monoclonal antibodies were systemically administered after acute SCI, and were detected in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and in the injured tissue. Rats treated with RGMa blocking antibodies showed significantly improved recovery of motor function and gait. Furthermore, RGMa blocking antibodies promoted neuronal survival, and enhanced the plasticity of descending serotonergic pathways and corticospinal tract axonal regeneration. RGMa antibody also attenuated neuropathic pain responses, which was associated with fewer activated microglia and reduced CGRP expression in the dorsal horn caudal to the lesion. These results show the therapeutic potential of the first human RGMa antibody for SCI and uncovers a new role for the RGMa/Neogenin pathway on neuropathic pain.