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Proximal tubule apical endocytosis is modulated by fluid shear stress via an mTOR-dependent pathway.

Molecular biology of the cell (2017-07-20)
Kimberly R Long, Katherine E Shipman, Youssef Rbaibi, Elizabeth V Menshikova, Vladimir B Ritov, Megan L Eshbach, Yu Jiang, Edwin K Jackson, Catherine J Baty, Ora A Weisz
ABSTRACT

Cells lining the proximal tubule (PT) have unique membrane specializations that are required to maintain the high-capacity ion transport and endocytic functions of this nephron segment. PT cells in vivo acutely regulate ion transport in response to changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to maintain glomerulotubular balance. PT cells in culture up-regulate endocytic capacity in response to acute changes in fluid shear stress (FSS); however, it is not known whether GFR modulates PT endocytosis to enable maximally efficient uptake of filtered proteins in vivo. Here, we show that cells cultured under continuous FSS develop an expanded apical endocytic pathway and increased endocytic capacity and lysosomal biogenesis. Furthermore, endocytic capacity in fully differentiated cells is rapidly modulated by changes in FSS. PT cells exposed to continuous FSS also acquired an extensive brush border and basolateral membrane invaginations resembling those observed in vivo. Culture under suboptimal levels of FSS led to intermediate phenotypes, suggesting a threshold effect. Cells exposed to FSS expressed higher levels of key proteins necessary for PT function, including ion transporters, receptors, and membrane-trafficking machinery, and increased adenine nucleotide levels. Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) using rapamycin prevented the increase in cellular energy levels, lysosomal biogenesis, and endocytic uptake, suggesting that these represent a coordinated differentiation program. In contrast, rapamycin did not prevent the FSS-induced increase in Na

MATERIALS
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Sigma-Aldrich
Dulbecco′s Phosphate Buffered Saline, With MgCl2 and CaCl2, liquid, sterile-filtered, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Dulbecco′s Modified Eagle′s Medium/Nutrient Mixture F-12 Ham, With 15 mM HEPES and sodium bicarbonate, without L-glutamine, liquid, sterile-filtered, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-Acetylated Tubulin antibody, Mouse monoclonal antibody produced in mouse, clone 6-11B-1, purified from hybridoma cell culture