Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections (IMIs) have low cure rates using standard antibiotic treatment and increasing the duration of treatment usually improves therapeutic success. Chronic IMIs are thought to be caused by bacteria presenting a specific virulence phenotype that includes the capacity to produce greater amounts of biofilm. In this study, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm production by S. aureus isolates recovered from IMIs that were cured or not following an extended therapy with cephapirin, pirlimycin or ceftiofur for 5, 8 and 8 days, respectively, were compared. An isolate was confirmed as from a persistent case (not cured) if the same S. aureus strain was isolated before and after treatment as revealed by the same VNTR profile (variable number of tandem repeats detected by multiplex PCR). The antibiotic minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for these isolates as well as the capacity of the isolates to produce biofilm. Isolates from persistent cases after extended therapy with cephapirin or ceftiofur had higher MICs for these drugs compared to isolates from non-persistent cases (p < 0.05) even though the antibiotic susceptibility breakpoints were not exceeded. Isolates of the ceftiofur study significantly increased their biofilm production in presence of a sub-MIC of ceftiofur (p < 0.05), whereas isolates from the pirlimycin group produced significantly less biofilm in presence of a sub-MIC of pirlimycin (p < 0.001). Relative antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates as well as biofilm production may play a role in the failure of extended therapies. On the other hand, some antibiotics may counteract biofilm formation and improve cure rates.