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Modulating in vitro gastric digestion of emulsions using composite whey protein-cellulose nanocrystal interfaces.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces (2017-07-09)
Anwesha Sarkar, Shuning Zhang, Brent Murray, Jessica A Russell, Sally Boxal
ABSTRACT

In this study, we designed emulsions with an oil-water interface consisting of a composite layer of whey protein isolate (WPI, 1wt%) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) (1-3wt%). The hypothesis was that a secondary layer of CNCs at the WPI-stabilized oil-water interface could protect the interfacial protein layer against in vitro gastric digestion by pepsin at 37°C. A combination of transmission electron microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, interfacial shear viscosity measurements and theoretical surface coverage considerations suggested the presence of CNCs and WPI together at the O/W interface, owing to the electrostatic attraction between complementarily charged WPI and CNCs at pH 3. Microstructural analysis and droplet sizing revealed that the presence of CNCs increased the resistance of the interfacial protein film to rupture by pepsin, thus inhibiting droplet coalescence in the gastric phase, which occurs rapidly in an emulsion stabilized by WPI alone. It appeared that there was an optimum concentration of CNCs at the interface for such barrier effects. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results further confirmed that the presence of 3wt% of CNCs reduced the rate and extent of proteolysis of protein at the interface. Besides, evidence of adsorption of CNCs to the protein-coated droplets to form more rigid layers, there is also the possibility that network formation by the CNCs in the bulk (continuous) phase reduced the kinetics of proteolysis. Nevertheless, structuring emulsions with mixed protein-particle layers could be an effective strategy to tune and control interfacial barrier properties during gastric passage of emulsions.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Cellulose, microcrystalline, powder, 20 μm
Sigma-Aldrich
Pepsin from porcine gastric mucosa, powder, ≥250 units/mg solid