This study investigated the aroma contribution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Moutai liquors. The VSCs were analyzed using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection (HS-SPME-GC-PFPD). The influences of SPME fibers, ethanol content in the sample, pre-incubation time, and extraction temperature and time on the extraction of VSCs were optimized. The VSCs were optimally extracted using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, by incubating 10 mL diluted Chinese liquor (5% vol.) with 3 g NaCl at 30 °C for 15 min, followed by a subsequent extraction for 40 min at 30 °C. The optimized method was further validated. A total of 13 VSCs were identified and quantified in Moutai liquors. The aroma contribution of these VSCs were evaluated by their odor activity values (OAVs), with the result that 7 of 13 VSCs had OAVs > 1. In particular, 2-furfurylthiol, methanethiol, dimethyl trisulfide, ethanethiol, and methional had relatively high OAVs and could be the key aroma contributors to Moutai liquors. In this study, a method for analyzing volatile sulfur compounds in Chinese liquors has been developed. This method will allow an in-depth study the aroma contribution of volatile sulfur compounds in Chinese liquors. Seven volatile sulfur compounds were identified as potential key aroma contributors for Moutai liquors, which can help to the quality control of Moutai liquors.