Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) has been shown to inhibit the viability of various cancer cells. Previous studies have revealed that the mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effects of DHA are based on theactivation of p53 and the mitochondrial-related cell death pathway. However, the exact association between upstream signaling and the activation of cell death pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that DHA treatment induced the upregulation of caveolin 1 (Cav1) and mitochondrial carrier homolog 2 (MTCH2) in HeLa cells, and this was associated with the DHA-induced inhibition of cell viability and DHA-induced apoptosis. Additionally, the overexpression of Cav1 and MTCH2 in HeLa cells enhanced the inhibitory effects of DHA on cell viability. Moreover, we also found that the upregulation of Cav1 contributed to the DHA-mediated p53 activation and the downregulation of the redox enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which have been reported to contribute to the activation of the cell death pathway. Of note, we also found that DHA induced the nuclear translocation and accumulation of both Cav1 and p53, indicating a novel potential mechanism, namely the regulation of p53 activation by Cav1. On the whole, our study identified Cav1 and MTCH2 as the molecular targets of DHA and revealed a new link between the upstream Cav1/MTCH2 upregulation and the downstream activation of the cell death pathway involved in the DHA-mediated inhibition of cell viability.