Mood stabilizers are the cornerstone in treatment of mood disorders, but their use is characterized by high interindividual variability. This feature has stimulated intensive research to identify predictive biomarkers of response and disentangle the molecular bases of their clinical efficacy. Nevertheless, findings from studies conducted so far have only explained a small proportion of the observed variability, suggesting that factors other than DNA variants could be involved. A growing body of research has been focusing on the role of epigenetics and metabolomics in response to mood stabilizers, especially lithium salts. Studies from these approaches have provided new insights into the molecular networks and processes involved in the mechanism of action of mood stabilizers, promoting a systems-level multiomics synergy. In this article, we reviewed the literature investigating the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms, noncoding RNAs and metabolomic modifications in bipolar disorder and the mechanism of action and clinical efficacy of mood stabilizers.