Of the many minor histocompatibility (H) Ags that have been detected in mice, the ability to induce graft vs host disease (GVHD) after bone marrow transplantation is restricted to a limited number of immunodominant Ags. One such murine Ag, B6dom1, is presented by the H2-Db MHC class I molecule. We present biochemical evidence that the natural B6dom1 peptide is indistinguishable from AAPDNRETF, and we show that this peptide can be isolated from a wide array of tissues, with highest levels from the lymphoid organs and lung. Moreover, we employ a novel, somatic cell selection technique involving CTL-mediated immunoselection coupled with classical genetics, to show that B6dom1 is encoded by the H7 minor H locus originally discovered approximately 40 years ago. These studies provide a molecular genetic framework for understanding B6dom1, and exemplify the fact that mouse minor H loci that encode immunodominant CTL epitopes can correspond to classical H loci originally identified by their ability to confer strong resistance to tumor transplantation. Additionally, these studies demonstrate the utility of somatic cell selection approaches toward resolving H Ag immunogenetics.