To investigate voice changes as they develop over time due to cigarette smoking, women who never smoked (NS), women who smoked less than 10 years (S1), and women who smoked 10 or more years (S2) were compared. Acoustic (fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, signal-to-noise ratio), electroglottographic (open, closing, and speed quotients), aerodynamic (subglottal pressure, airflow, laryngeal airway resistance), and perceptual measures were obtained. Fundamental frequency and open quotient significantly decreased and speed quotient significantly increased in S1 and S2; jitter and shimmer significantly increased in S2 only. NS were perceived as non-smokers more reliably than S1 and S2 as smokers. Fundamental frequency, open quotient, and speed quotient were the most sensitive indicators of smoking effects on the female voice.
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