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Comprehensive Study of Mediterranean (Croatian) Propolis Peculiarity: Headspace, Volatiles, Anti-Varroa-Treatment Residue, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Properties.

Chemistry & biodiversity (2016-02-18)
Igor Jerković, Zvonimir Marijanović, Piotr M Kuś, Carlo I G Tuberoso
ABSTRACT

Eight propolis samples from Croatia were analyzed in detail, to study the headspace, volatiles, anti-Varroa-treatment residue, phenolics, and antioxidant properties. The samples exhibited high qualitative/quantitative variability of the chemical profiles, total phenolic content (1,589.3-14,398.3 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/l EtOH extract), and antioxidant activity (11.1-133.5 mmol Fe(2+) /l extract and 6.2-65.3 mmol TEAC (Trolox® equivalent antioxidant capacity)/l extract). The main phenolics quantified by HPLC-DAD at 280 and 360 nm were vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, chrysin, galangin, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester. The major compounds identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), and subsequent GC-FID and GC/MS analyses were α-eudesmol (up to 19.9%), β-eudesmol (up to 12.6%), γ-eudesmol (up to 10.5%), benzyl benzoate (up to 28.5%), and 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (up to 18.1%). Vanillin was determined as minor constituent by SDE/GC-FID/MS and HPLC-DAD. The identified acaricide residue thymol was ca. three times more abundant by HS-SPME/GC-FID/MS than by SDE/GC-FID/MS and was not detected by HPLC-DAD.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 5, needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
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SPME fiber assembly, Carbowax-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Coating, needle size 23 ga, df 60 μm (PEG), for use with autosampler
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SPME fiber assembly, Carbowax-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Coating, needle size 23 ga, df 60 μm (PEG), metal alloy fiber, for use with manual holder
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IonSense® PDMS/DVB SPE-it Tips, pkg of 96 ea
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SPME LC Tips, C18, tray of 96 ea
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SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga, metal alloy fiber
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SPME fiber assortment kit 1, for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga
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SPME fiber assortment kit 4, for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga
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SPME fiber assortment kit 2, for use with autosampler, size 24 ga
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SPME fiber assortment kit 4, for use with manual holder, size 24 ga
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SPME fiber assortment kit 1, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
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SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), needle size 24 ga, for use with autosampler
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SPME StableFlex fiber assortment kit, for use with manual holder
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SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), needle size 24 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
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SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
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SPME fiber assortment kit 2, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
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SPME fiber assortment kit 4, for use with autosampler, size 24 ga
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SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), needle size 24 ga, StableFlex, for use with manual holder
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SPME fiber assortment kit 1, for use with autosampler, needle size 24 ga
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SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), fused silica fiber, df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), for use with manual holder, needle size 23 ga
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SPME StableFlex fiber assortment kit, for use with autosampler, needle size 24 ga
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SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga
Supelco
SPME StableFlex fiber assortment kit, needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
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SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), needle size 23 ga, PDMS/DVB StableFlex, for use with autosampler
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SPME fiber assortment kit 2, for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga
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SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm (PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with autosampler
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SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating CAR/PDMS
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SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm (CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
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SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 100 μm (PDMS), for use with manual holder, needle size 23 ga
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SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 23 ga, StableFlex, for use with manual holder or autosampler, fiber L 2 cm