Randomized controlled clinical studies have suggested 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are effective in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events.1 Primary prevention refers to interventions that obviate the first occurrence of a disease or condition, secondary interventions deter reoccurrence.
The use of statins for primary intervention is extensive for individuals with no previous CVD but who have both elevated cholesterol levels and high blood pressure, or individuals who have coronary heart disease plus multiple risk factors such as diabetes and high blood pressure.2
While cholesterol has been singled out as the primary factor in the development of atherosclerosis, some research studies suggest that C-reactive protein (CRP) may also be a marker for the development and progression of atherosclerosis.3-5 Elevated basal levels of CRP can lead to inflammation of arterial vessels, increasing the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.4
In 2010, rosuvastatin was approved in the U.S. to prevent CVD in individuals over 50 with normal low density lipid (LDL)-cholesterol levels and no history of heart disease, but elevated CRP levels coupled with one other risk factor such as high blood pressure.6
You can obtain seven statins from Sigma® Life Science, including the two drug candidates, mevastatin (M2537) and SR 12813 (S4194). We also offer complementary products such as antibodies, biomolecules, and zinc finger nucleases. Visit sigma.com to discover all the products relevant to your research.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear receptors that function as transcription factors on targeted genes when heterodimerized with the retinoid X receptor.1
PPAR-α is mainly involved in fatty acid oxidation and is expressed in the liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle, while PPAR-γ is primarily involved in fat cell differentiation and insulin sensitivity.2 Both are expressed in smooth muscle cells and myocardium.
PPAR agonists have been shown to reduce blood pressure in several models of hypertension, correct endothelial dysfunction, and exert anti-inflammatory actions.3-5 Therefore, these therapeutic agents are used to prevent vascular and cardiac complications associated with hypertension.
The enzyme acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) esterifies cholesterol in a variety of tissues. In some animal models, ACAT inhibitors act alone or in combination with HMG-CoA inhibitors to exert their antiatherosclerotic effects.1 This effect is presumed to occur through the regulation of cholesterol trafficking pathways in the liver and vascular cells.2
Research. Development. Production.
We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.