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Comparing the effects of nanosilver size and coating variations on bioavailability, internalization, and elimination, using Lumbriculus variegatus.

Environmental toxicology and chemistry (2013-05-21)
Jessica G Coleman, Alan J Kennedy, Anthony J Bednar, James F Ranville, Jennifer G Laird, Ashley R Harmon, Charolett A Hayes, Evan P Gray, Christopher P Higgins, Guilherme Lotufo, Jeffery A Steevens
ABSTRACT

As the production and applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) increase, it is essential to characterize fate and effects in environmental systems. Nanosilver materials may settle from suspension; therefore, the authors' objective was to utilize environmentally relevant bioassays and study the impact, bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, uptake, and depuration of AgNPs on a sediment-dwelling invertebrate, Lumbriculus variegatus. Hydrodynamic diameters of uncoated 30-nm, 80-nm, and 1500-nm AgNP powders and a polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) AgNP suspension were measured utilizing dynamic light scattering in freshwater media (0-280 µS/cm). Aggregation for 30 nm, 80 nm, and 1500 nm silver increased with conductivity but was minimal for PVP silver. Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed to AgNPs or silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) spiked into sediment (nominally 100 mg/kg) and water (PVP 30 nm and 70 nm Ag, nominally 5 mg/L). Uptake was assessed through inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and hyperspectral imaging. Particle sizes were examined through field flow fractionation-ICP-MS (FFF-ICP-MS) and ICP-MS in single particle mode (SP-ICP-MS). Lumbriculus variegatus were also depurated for 6 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h to determine gut clearance. Bioaccumulation factors of sediment-exposed L. variegatus were similar regardless of particle size or coatings. The FFF-ICP-MS and SP-ICP-MS detected AgNPs for up to 48 h post depuration. The present study provides information on bioaccumulation and interactions of AgNPs within biological systems.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Silver nitrate on silica gel, extent of labeling: ~10 wt. % loading, +230 mesh
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Silver nitrate solution, 2.5 % (w/v) AgNO3 in H2O
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, average mol wt 10,000
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, suitable for plant cell culture, average mol wt 10,000
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, powder, average Mw ~55,000
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, average Mw ~1,300,000 by LS
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, K 25, tested according to Ph. Eur.
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Supelco
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