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Use of Synchrotron Radiation-Analytical Techniques To Reveal Chemical Origin of Silver-Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity.

ACS nano (2015-05-23)
Liming Wang, Tianlu Zhang, Panyun Li, Wanxia Huang, Jinglong Tang, Pengyang Wang, Jing Liu, Qingxi Yuan, Ru Bai, Bai Li, Kai Zhang, Yuliang Zhao, Chunying Chen
ABSTRACT

To predict potential medical value or toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs), it is necessary to understand the chemical transformation during intracellular processes of NPs. However, it is a grand challenge to capture a high-resolution image of metallic NPs in a single cell and the chemical information on intracellular NPs. Here, by integrating synchrotron radiation-beam transmission X-ray microscopy (SR-TXM) and SR-X-ray absorption near edge structure (SR-XANES) spectroscopy, we successfully capture the 3D distribution of silver NPs (AgNPs) inside a single human monocyte (THP-1), associated with the chemical transformation of silver. The results reveal that the cytotoxicity of AgNPs is largely due to the chemical transformation of particulate silver from elemental silver (Ag(0))n, to Ag(+) ions and Ag-O-, then Ag-S- species. These results provide direct evidence in the long-lasting debate on whether the nanoscale or the ionic form dominates the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles. Further, the present approach provides an integrated strategy capable of exploring the chemical origins of cytotoxicity in metallic nanoparticles.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Silver nitrate, 99.9999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Silver nitrate solution, 2.5 % (w/v) AgNO3 in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Silver nitrate, BioXtra, >99% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Silver nitrate on silica gel, extent of labeling: ~10 wt. % loading, +230 mesh
Sigma-Aldrich
Silver nitrate, BioReagent, suitable for plant cell culture, >99% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Silver nitrate, anhydrous, ≥99.999% trace metals basis