Shigella

Shigella spp. is an enteric bacteria that causes contamination in food and water. Bacteria of the genus Shigella are Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-motile rods.

Shigella was first discovered in 1896 by the Japanese microbiologist, Kiyoshi Shiga. It was initially called Bacillus dysenteries, and the exotoxin from S. dysenteriae, called Shiga toxins (also called verotoxins), got their name from the discoverer.3 It is related to the Shiga-like toxins which are produced from the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) like E. coli O157.

Additionally, Shigella can produce Shigella enterotoxin 1 and 23 as well as a protease called VirA, which destabilizes the microtubules in human cells, allowing the bacteria to enter the cell4,5 and for the actin-mediated motility.6,7 It is very resistant to acid in the human stomach and also to proteases present in the intestinal tract. That is also the reason that even small numbers can lead to an outbreak of shigellosis.

Of the various strains, S. sonnei is the cause of 77% of infections in the developed world (summer diarrhea). S. flexneri is the most reported Shigella worldwide (60% in developing countries) and S. boydii are responsible for most of the remaining cases while S. dysenteriae is very seldom seen in developed countries but accounts for 30% of cases in underdeveloped areas.8

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References
1. “Symptoms of Shigella Infection.” About Shigella. Marler Clark.
2. "Shigellosis." The Merck Manual Home Health Handbook..
3. Fasano, A., Noriega, F.R., Liao, F.M., Wang, W., and M.M. Levine. “Effect of shigella enterotoxin 1 (ShET1) on rabbit intestine in vitro and in vivo,” Gut., 40(4), 505–511 (1997).
4. Tran Van Nhieu G., Caron E., Hall A., and P.J. Sansonetti. “IpaC induces actin polymerization and filopodia formation during Shigella entry into epithelial cells,” EMBO J.,18(12), 3249-62 (1999).
5. High, N., Mounier, J., Prévost, M.C., and P.J. Sansonetti. “IpaB of Shigella flexneri causes entry into epithelial cells and escape from the phagocytic vacuole,” JEM, Vol. 183 no. 3 991-999 (1996).
6. Egileb, C., Loiselc, T.P., Laurentc, V., Lia, R., Pantalonic, D., Sansonettib, P.J., and M.F. Carlierc. “Activation of the Cdc42 Effector N-Wasp by the Shigella flexneri Icsa Protein Promotes Actin Nucleation by Arp2/3 Complex and Bacterial Actin-Based Motility,” JCB 20, Vol. 146 no. 6 1319-1332 (1999).
7. Rathman, M., de Lanerolle, P., Ohayon, H., Gounon, P. and P. Sansonetti. “Myosin light chain kinase plays an essential role in S. flexneri dissemination,” J. Cell. Sci. 113, 3375-3386 (2000).
8. Diarrhoeal Diseases: Shigellosis, Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR), World Health Organization.

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70133 Nonselective media for Shigella
Blood Agar (Base) for microbiology  
70138 Nonselective media for Shigella
Brain Heart Infusion Agar for microbiology BHI Agar
90035 Selective & Differential Media for Shigella
DCLS Agar No. 2 for microbiology Desoxycholate Citrate Lactose Sucrose Agar No. 2
70135 Selective & Differential Media for Shigella
DCLS Agar for microbiology Deoxycholate Citrate Lactose Sucrose Agar
D7809 Selective & Differential Media for Shigella
Deoxycholate citrate agar for microbiology  
51490 Selective & Differential Media for Shigella
Hektoen Enteric Agar for microbiology  
60787 Nonselective & Differential Media for Shigella
Kligler Agar for microbiology Kligler Iron Agar
61792 Selective & Differential Media for Shigella
Leifson Agar for microbiology DC Agar Deoxycholate Citrate Agar according to Leifson, modified
70143 Selective & Differential Media for Shigella
MacConkey Agar No 1 for microbiology  
M8302 Selective & Differential Media for Shigella
MacConkey Agar with Crystal violet, Sodium chloride and 0.15% Bile salts for microbiology  
39484 Selective & Differential Media for Shigella
Methyl Red Voges Proskauer Broth for microbiology Buffered Glucose Broth Glucose Phosphate Broth MR VP Broth
17178 Nonselective & Differential Media for Shigella
Mucate Broth for microbiology  
72548 Nonselective & Differential Media for Shigella
Nitrate Broth for microbiology  
75315 Nonselective & Differential Media for Shigella
OF Test Nutrient Agar for microbiology Oxidative Fermentative Agar acc. to Hugh a. Leifson
40893 Nonselective media for Shigella
Peptone Water, phosphate-buffered, Vegitone for microbiology BPW Vegitone Buffered Peptone Water Vegitone Vegitone Peptone Water, phosphate-buffered
77187 Nonselective media for Shigella
Peptone Water, phosphate-buffered for microbiology Buffered Peptone Water Tryptone Phosphate Water
94217 Nonselective media for Shigella
Peptone Water, phosphate-buffered for microbiology, ready to use media in the bottle Buffered Peptone Water Tryptone Phosphate Water
77185 Nonselective media for Shigella
Peptone Water for microbiology  
85640 Selective & Differential Media for Shigella
SS-Agar for microbiology Salmonella Shigella Agar
92499 Nonselective & Differential Media for Shigella
Triple Sugar Iron Agar (acc. to ISO) for microbiology TSI Agar
44940 Nonselective & Differential Media for Shigella
Triple Sugar Iron Agar for microbiology TSI Agar
95586 Selective & Differential Media for Shigella
XLD Agar for microbiology Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar