Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology

PPARgamma activation in human endothelial cells increases plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 expression: PPARgamma as a potential mediator in vascular disease.

PMID 10073956


Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) is a major physiological inhibitor of fibrinolysis, with its plasma levels correlating with the risk for myocardial infarction and venous thrombosis. The regulation of PAI-1 transcription by endothelial cells (ECs), a major source of PAI-1, remains incompletely understood. Adipocytes also produce PAI-1, suggesting possible common regulatory pathways between adipocytes and ECs. Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR)gamma is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to various mediators such as 15-deoxy-Delta12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and oxidized linoleic acid (9- and 13-HODE). The present study tested the hypotheses that human ECs express PPARgamma and that this transcriptional activator regulates PAI-1 expression in this cell type. We found that human ECs contain both PPARgamma mRNA and protein. Immunohistochemistry of human carotid arteries also revealed the presence of PPARgamma in ECs. Bovine ECs transfected with a PPAR response element (PPRE)-luciferase construct responded to stimulation by the PPARgamma agonist 15d-PGJ2 in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting a functional PPARgamma in ECs. Treatment of human ECs with 15d-PGJ2, 9(S)-HODE, or 13(S)-HODE augmented PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression, whereas multiple PPARalpha activators did not change PAI-1 levels. Introduction of increasing amounts of a PPARgamma expression construct in human fibroblasts enhanced PAI-1 secretion from these cells in proportion to the amount of transfected DNA. Thus, ECs express functionally active PPARgamma that regulates PAI-1 expression in ECs. Our results establish a role for PPARgamma in the regulation of EC gene expression, with important implications for the clinical links between obesity and atherosclerosis.

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9(S)-HODE, ≥98% (HPLC)