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Kidney international

Increased erythrocyte 3-DG and AGEs in diabetic hemodialysis patients: role of the polyol pathway.


PMID 10231461

Abstract

3-Deoxyglucosone (3-DG) accumulating in uremic serum plays an important role in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). To determine if 3-DG is involved in the formation of intracellular AGEs, we measured the erythrocyte levels of 3-DG and AGEs such as imidazolone and N epsilon-carboxymethyllysine (CML) in hemodialysis (HD) patients with diabetes. Further, to determine if the polyol pathway is involved in the formation of erythrocyte 3-DG and AGEs, an aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) was administered to these patients. The erythrocyte levels of sorbitol, 3-DG, imidazolone, and CML were measured in ten diabetic HD patients before and after treatment with ARI (epalrestat) for eight weeks, and were compared with those in eleven healthy subjects. 3-DG was incubated in vitro with hemoglobin for two weeks to determine if imidazolone and CML are formed by reacting 3-DG with hemoglobin. The erythrocyte levels of sorbitol, 3-DG, imidazolone, and CML were significantly elevated in diabetic HD patients as compared with healthy subjects. The erythrocyte levels of 3-DG significantly decreased after HD, but sorbitol, imidazolone or CML did not. The administration of ARI significantly decreased the erythrocyte levels of sorbitol, 3-DG and imidazolone, and tended to decrease the CML level. Imidazolone was rapidly produced in vitro by incubating 3-DG with hemoglobin, and CML was also produced, but less markedly as compared with imidazolone. The erythrocyte levels of 3-DG and AGEs are elevated in diabetic HD patients. The administration of ARI reduces the erythrocyte levels of 3-DG and AGEs, especially imidazolone, as well as sorbitol. Thus, 3-DG and AGEs, especially imidazolone, in the erythrocytes are produced mainly via the polyol pathway. ARI may prevent diabetic and uremic complications associated with AGEs.