Caffeine alters A2A adenosine receptors and their function in human platelets.

PMID 10330379


Caffeine acts mainly via blockade of adenosine receptors, which have been classified into A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 subtypes. We determined whether repeated caffeine administration (750 mg/d for 1 week) upregulates the human platelet A2A adenosine receptor and is accompanied by sensitization of platelet responses (increase in cAMP accumulation and decrease in platelet aggregation) to selective stimulation of the A2A receptors. Platelets were obtained from peripheral venous blood of 9 human volunteers at the end of 1 week of caffeine abstinence (control) and at 12 and 60 hours after the last dose of caffeine (withdrawal). The A2A receptor radioligand [3H]SCH 58261 (5-amino-7(phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1, 5-c]-pyrimidine) bound to a single affinity class of sites in platelet membranes from controls with a Bmax of 98+/-2 fmol/mg protein and a KD of 1.29+/-0.05 nmol/L. At 12 and 60 hours after caffeine withdrawal, the radioligand bound with similar affinity (KD=1.36+/-0.06 and 1.21+/-0.05 nmol/L, respectively), but the Bmax was increased (P<0.01) to 128+/-3 and 132+/-2 fmol/mg protein. The A2A receptor agonist 2-hexynyl-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (HE-NECA) increased cAMP accumulation (EC50=59+/-3 nmol/L) and inhibited (IC50=90+/-6 nmol/L) aggregation of control platelets. The EC50 values for HE-NECA to increase cAMP accumulation of platelets were reduced (P<0.01) at 12 and 60 hours after caffeine withdrawal (31+/-3 and 21+/-2 nmol/L, respectively). The IC50 values for HE-NECA to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation were 50+/-5 and 30+/-2 nmol/L at 12 and 60 hours after caffeine withdrawal, respectively. Chronic caffeine intake leads to upregulation of A2A receptors and is accompanied by sensitization to the actions of the agonist HE-NECA.