Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire

The association between familial distal renal tubular acidosis and mutations in the red cell anion exchanger (band 3, AE1) gene.

PMID 10353704


In distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) the tubular secretion of hydrogen ion in the distal nephron is impaired, leading to the development of metabolic acidosis, frequently accompanied by hypokalemia, nephrocalcinosis, and metabolic bone disease. The condition can be familial, when it is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant, though there is a rarer autosomal recessive form associated with nerve deafness. It has been shown that the autosomal dominant form of dRTA is associated with a defect in the anion exchanger (AE1) of the renal collecting duct intercalated cell. This transporter is a product of the same gene (AE1) as the erythrocyte anion exchanger, band 3. In this review we will look at the evidence for this association. Studies of genomic DNA from families with this disorder have shown, both by genetic linkage studies and by DNA sequencing, that affected individuals are heterozygous for mutations in the AE1 gene whilst unaffected family members have a normal band 3 sequence. Mutations have been found in the region of proposed helices 6 and 7 of the membrane domain of band 3 and involve amino acids Arg-589 and Ser-613, and in the COOH-terminal domain of band 3. Studies of red cell band 3 from these families have provided information on the effect these mutations have on the structure and function of erythrocyte band 3. Expression studies of the erythroid and kidney isoforms of the mutant AE1 proteins, in Xenopus laevis oocytes, have shown that they retained chloride transport activity, suggesting that the disease in the dRTA families is not related simply to the anion transport activity of the mutated proteins. A possible explanation for the dominant effect of these mutant AE1 proteins in the kidney cell is that these mutations affect the targeting of AE1 from the basolateral to the apical membrane of the alpha-intercalated cell.

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