AIDS research and human retroviruses

Intracellular activation of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine and drug interactions in vitro.

PMID 10381167


Didanosine (2',3'-dideoxyinosine; ddI) requires intracellular metabolism to its active triphosphate, 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (ddATP), to inhibit the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We have investigated the metabolism of ddI to ddATP in the presence and absence of a range of compounds. In addition, we determined the levels of the endogenous competitor of ddATP, 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (dATP), and calculated ddATP/dATP ratios. None of the nucleoside analogs studied had any effect on ddI phosphorylation at 1 and 10 microM concentrations. At 100 microM concentrations, ddC reduced total ddA phosphates (82% of control total ddA phosphates; p < 0.001). ZDV significantly decreased the levels of dATP, whereas ddC significantly increased dATP pools (e.g., at 100 microM ZDV, 82% of control dATP levels; p < 0.001). Hence, the ddATP/dATP ratio was increased in the presence of ZDV, but was decreased in the presence of ddC. Neither d4T nor 3TC affected the ddATP/dATP ratio. Deoxyinosine (dI) significantly reduced ddA phosphate production at 100 microM concentrations, with ddATP reduced to undetectable levels (p < 0.001). Hydroxyurea (HU) did not affect the activation of ddI, but significantly reduced dATP pools at 100 microM concentrations (67% of control dATP levels; p < 0.001), enhancing the ddATP/dATP ratio. ddA phosphate production was significantly reduced by pentoxyfylline (PXF) at 10 and 100 microM concentrations. dATP levels were unaffected, but the ddATP/dATP ratio was reduced. Finally, 8-aminoguanosine (8-AMG) had no effect on either ddI activation or dATP pools. These studies demonstrate the importance of determining both the active TP and the competing endogenous TP, as changes to the resulting ratio could alter the efficacy of the nucleoside analog in question.

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2′-Deoxyinosine, ≥98%